Many products for babies and kids such as prams and strollers, cots, portable cots, bike helmets, baby dummies and toys are subject to mandatory standards. In addition, there are voluntary standards available for many of these and other products, which are regularly updated. When buying a second-hand version of any of these items, you're taking the risk that you're buying an old model that wasn't subject to standards when it was first sold, or was not made to pass the latest and best version of the relevant standard. Even if the item is in good condition, it might not be as safe as a newer model.
And remember, second-hand goods bought from a private seller usually aren't covered by consumer guarantees.
A full list of products subject to mandatory standards can be found on the ACCC website. Take care when buying any of these products second-hand.
Recalled second-hand items
Recalled products still frequently end up for sale second-hand, so check your find at recalls.gov.au before you buy.
Risky second-hand products for kids
Second-hand cots are dangerous because they may not meet the mandatory Australian standard, which was introduced in 1998. But a newer second-hand cot is no guarantee of safety either – even some cots sold since then do not meet the standard, as our tests have found.
Cots that don't meet current standards can have hazards such as gaps between bars that are too wide and could trap a child's head or limb. They can pose a strangulation risk, for example, through clothing catching on decorative knobs or protrusions. Some old cots may even be coated in dangerous lead paint.
However, a cot that's been made for the Australian market, is in good condition, and is only a few years old is likely to be okay. Look for cots certified to AS/NZS 2172.
Bassinets aren't subject to any Australian standards or regulations, but we test them too and find many that don't meet our safety requirements.
Second-hand mattresses can be full of dust mites. Dust mite droppings contain allergens that can set off asthma, eczema and allergic rhinitis attacks and they could trigger an allergic reaction. Old mattresses are often also comparatively soft and saggy, which can mean they pose an increased risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), due to the increased chance of a child's face being covered if they roll face first onto the mattress.
Child car restraints
Baby seats should never be re-used if they've been in a car crash. Car seats have improved over time, so older models may not comply with current standards. Manufacturers generally advise against using a seat that's more than 6-10 years old, as parts can wear and become weaker over time.
So never buy a second-hand baby seat unless you know it's full history. Always check that it has no signs of wear, cracks or fraying of the safety harness.
If you or your kids ride a bike, not only should the bike itself be in good condition, but you also need a bike helmet that fits properly. Helmets can slide off if they aren't properly fitted, and they're really only made to withstand only one big crash – but you can't tell by looking if a helmet's already been in that one major accident.
As bike helmets should be replaced every five years anyway, a second-hand helmet is a poor deal all round.
Pre-loved toys have often seen a lot of action in the hands of their young owners. Wear and tear can lead to breaks and small loose parts, which in turn may present choking hazards to babies and toddlers.
Check that toys are in good condition and suitable for your child; for kids under the age of three, it's particularly important that there are no loose or accessible small parts (remember the film canister rule?). The toys should have no sharp edges or points, and no accessible batteries or strong magnets.
Criss-cross accordion baby gates
Baby gates and barriers are meant to stop toddlers falling down stairs but unfortunately this older-type gate, which opens criss-cross like an accordion, can trap a child's head or clothes and is too easy to climb. Overseas they've caused major injuries and deaths.
Pools are expensive to put in, but buying second-hand isn't always the bargain it seems. Not only can second-hand pools come with cracks and other defects in their shells, they may also be supplied with old and dangerous skimmer boxes (part of the filtration system) which have been responsible for serious injuries.
If the skimmer box can be sat in, or if there is damage to it, you have to replace it before your pool can be used. And if you buy a house with an existing pool, make sure you check the skimmer box and the pool fence (see below) before you take the plunge.
CHOICE tests of pool fences have found models that are poorly constructed and fail the safety standard. So if you're buying a second-hand pool fencing, you're taking some real risks.
But if you're still keen, make sure you check:
- Is the fence robust and unable to be pushed apart using moderate force with your hands?
- Is it free of footholds or handholds?
- Does the gate still close properly?
- Has the fence ever been recalled? (You can check this at recalls.gov.au)
Exercise bikes and treadmills
Young children can be injured by stationary exercise bikes or treadmills. They can put their fingers into a bike's wheel spokes or chain while another person rides it. With treadmills, babies and toddlers may touch the belt while it's moving and get a friction burn or trapped fingers. More than 100 Australian children have been seriously injured by treadmills at home.
The current mandatory safety standard for exercise bikes requires securely fastened frames around all moving parts, but older-style exercise bikes don't always adequately cover the moving parts.
Life jackets (more formally known as personal flotation devices or PFDs) do save lives, no question. But in the past they were often so uncomfortable people didn't actually put them on. What's more, the most comfy designs were the ones that didn't keep your head above water, which is a big problem if you're knocked unconscious in a boating accident. If you buy second-hand, you could be buying these problems.
So particularly when it comes to your kids, it's worth spending the money on new life jackets which are safer and more comfortable to wear. But whether you're buying a new one or second-hand, be sure to get the jacket fitted properly.
Risky second-hand products for adults
Some of the products listed above can be a risk for adults as well as kids. But there are other products which only an adult would use and which may be dangerous when bought second-hand.
Electrical and power tools
A mistake here can be deadly. Faulty second-hand power tools have caused electrocutions, and loose or worn parts can cause other hazards. It's because of this kind of safety risk that very few second-hand or op shops now offer second-hand electrical tools for sale.
If you do acquire a used tool or other electrical appliance, check that it has a valid tag or have it checked out by a registered electrical contractor or licensed electrician before you plug it in. And if it has a power cord, check that the cord is in good condition and securely connected.
Car jacks already cause serious crush injuries and deaths every year, mostly from people using them at home to raise their vehicles for under-car maintenance (a big no-no) instead of using a trolley jack and safety stands.
But many second-hand jacks are also dangerous because they don't meet more recent safety standards. Some older jacks don't even pass the previous standard, so don't take the chance with them.
Online shopping is routine for most Australians these days, but there are a few things to keep in mind. Make sure that:
- the product is clearly identified and all the important details are described
- delivery options and costs are clear
- you're able to easily contact the seller if anything goes wrong. This is particularly important when buying on auction or second-hand sites such as eBay or Gumtree.
Safety standards apply to many kids' products sold in Australia. If you buy from an overseas website, there's a risk that the product won't meet Australian standards. Look for statements that the item is certified to the relevant Australian standard.
Dispose of goods thoughtfully
As well as taking care when buying second-hand goods, you can also take steps to make sure your old things don't pose a danger to someone else.
We suggest you decommission all devices that shouldn't be re-used. For example, cut off the electrical cord on appliances before putting them on the rubbish pile or on the roadside for council collection.