05.How ANCAP tests
ANCAP testing is internationally recognised and undertaken in an independent test laboratory. The two main crash tests are offset frontal and side impact, with a score of up to 16 points allocated to each. An additional five bonus points are available for a pole test (two points) and assessing seatbelt warning systems (three points). Overall, a maximum of 37 points is available, which we converted to a percentage to give the occupant protection rating in our results table. It's important to note that crash test results are only comparable for vehicles within the same category.
Frontal offset crash simulates crashing into another car. The car is crashed at 64km/h into a fixed barrier with a crushable aluminium face. Only 40% of the car's front on the driver's side makes initial contact with the barrier.
Side impact crash simulates a similar situation to an intersection crash, where one car crashes into the driver's side of another. A 950kg trolley with a crushable aluminium face is run into the driver's side of the stationary test car at 50km/h. As well as the driver crash test dummy, an 18-month-old and a three-year-old child dummy are put in the back seats in appropriate child car restraints.
Pole test simulates a vehicle crashing into a fixed object at 29km/h with contact in the line of the seated driver. Models with head airbags are eligible for this additional test. Cars with a low risk of head injury obtain two additional points for this test.
Advanced seatbelt warning system awards up to three additional points for models with seatbelt reminders. One point is awarded each for a driver reminder, a front passenger reminder and a reminder for all rear seat passengers.
Pedestrian protection test is a separate test scored out of a total of 36 points. The score is converted to give the pedestrian protection rating in the results table. It gives an estimation of head and leg injuries to pedestrians hit by a car travelling at 40km/h.
The occupant protection rating considers the injury of the driver and front passenger's head, neck, chest, adbomen, pelvis, upper and lower legs and the deformation of the vehicles structure. The following assessments are made:
- Passenger compartment should keep its shape.
- To minimise risk of injury, the steering column, dashboard, roof, roof pillars, pedals and floor panels shouldn't be pushed excessively inwards.
- Doors should remain closed during the crash (so occupants can't fall out of the car or be further impacted by another vehicle) and be easy to open after the crash (so occupants can get out or rescuers in).
- The seat, seatbelt and - if available - the airbag(s) are intended to keep the occupants inside the car, protect them from contact with hard car parts (such as the steering wheel, dashboard or windscreen) and spread the force of the impact over body parts that can cope best. Curtain airbags are also designed to prevent unbelted occupants from being ejected in a roll-over crash.
- For some tests, crash test dummies are painted with paint that rubs off on contact. This, together with a slow-motion video of the crash, shows whether any body parts hit parts of the car.
- Crash test dummies representing an average adult male are fitted with sensors that measure the forces and movements likely to injure the head, chest and upper and lower legs.
- Driver and passenger dummies are used in the offset crash; in the side-impact crash a driver dummy, as well as an 18-month-old and three-year-old child dummy (in the back seats in child restraints) are used.
- The results for head and chest injuries are combined to indicate the risk of life-threatening injuries.