How can ombudsman services help you?

Ombudsman services can't do everything, but they're getting better at what they can do.
Learn more

01 .Help from above


We explain how ombudsman services operate and how the complaint process works.

Ombudsmen are non-government intermediaries who can jump in on your behalf if you have a bona fide grievance with a goods or services provider that you can’t resolve yourself. 

They’re funded by the industries they oversee and their services are free for consumers. In effect, ombudsmen are paid to deal with consumer complaints that the service provider can’t resolve to the customer’s satisfaction. 

The expectation is that an ombudsman can persuade the wrongdoer to do the right thing. But do they have any real leverage?

For more information about legal issues, see Shopping and legal.

Telcos and finance

The Telecommunications Industry Ombudsman (TIO) and the Financial Ombudsman Service (FOS) look after two market sectors that generate many consumer complaints, but both services are making progress towards realising one of their central objectives – to persuade telcos and financial services providers to improve their own dispute resolution processes. Year on year, both services are receiving more complaints, but are having to become involved less often. Read more about the TIO and the FOS.

And there is evidence that both services are committed to getting better at what they do. The FOS hired 62 new people in 2010-11, increasing their staff force to 348 employees in June 2011. The service says it’s serious about continuing to reduce dispute resolution times (the number of disputes resolved in 60 days or less rose 12% in 2010-11).

Meanwhile, the TIO says telcos are responding more quickly once the TIO gets involved, resulting in fewer detailed investigations. The statistics confirm it had progressively fewer complaints year on year in which it has had to intervene.

FOS payback

Most disputes with financial services providers are resolved between the customer and the relevant bank, credit provider, insurance company or other financial services provider, with the FOS refereeing from the sidelines. However, should the FOS step in and make an official recommendation or determination in your favour, it can require a financial service provider to: 

  • Pay you a sum of money
  • Waive, vary the terms or release security for a debt
  • Repay, waive or vary a fee including interest rates on a loan
  • Vary the terms of a credit contract in cases of financial hardship
  • Honour an insurance policy claim

Limited powers 

Some consumers have told CHOICE their dealings with ombudsman services have left them less than satisfied. In the case of the Telecommunications Industry Ombudsman (TIO), a conspiracy theorist might say that’s because its board of directors is made up of former or current telco industry managers and executives. 

Indeed, ombudsman services are set up as a kind of outsourced self-regulation. However, it’s more likely that consumer frustration stems from having a poor understanding of what an ombudsman can and can’t do. It’s important to remember, for instance, that ombudsmen can’t provide legal advice or represent you in court, and they can only deal with matters that fall within their terms of reference.

You’ll also need to have tried to settle the issue before they become involved. More and more, though, threatening to contact an ombudsman is enough to spur service providers into fixing your problem.


Sign up to our free

Receive FREE email updates of our latest tests, consumer news and CHOICE marketing promotions.


1300 78 08 08 |


1800 06 20 58 |

disputes in 2011-12
up 19% from 2010-11

An FSP has 45 days to resolve a dispute brought by a customer, or by the FOS on behalf of a customer, before the FOS will consider officially taking on a case.

complaints in 2010-11,
up about 18% from 2009-2010

52,231 complaints were received between January-March 2012, almost two-thirds of which were about mobile phone services.

Funded by

12,853 financial services providers (FSPs) who are FOS members. ASIC requires that all FSPs have an external dispute resolution process, although not all are FOS members.

Funded by

1214 telcos. All businesses that provide or re-sell telecommunications services to consumers or small businesses are legally required to join the TIO. Providers are charged by the TIO per complaint if it investigates.

Call them for disputes about

  • Credit cards or loans
  • Insurance claims
  • Banks, credit unions and building societies
  • Financial planners/investment managers
  • EFTPOS, foreign currency transfers, loyalty programs, gift cards

Call them for disputes about

  • Landlines
  • Mobiles
  • Internet services

Don't call them about

  • Level of a fee, premium, charge or interest rate unless it's incorrectly applied or inadequately disclosed
  • Methods used to assess credit risk or the amount of security required for a loan
  • How insurance premiums are determined or the premium amount
  • Investment performance unless there is an issue of nondisclosure or misinformation
  • Super fund management

Don’t call them about

  • Equipment supplied by a telco
  • Cabling beyond the network termination point except to the first telephone
  • Commercial activity by telcos outside of connection services
  • Tariffs and rates
  • Anti-competitive behaviour or restrictive practices that may breach the Competition and Consumer Act
  • Content provided by a telco
  • Matters that are or have been under consideration by ACMA, the ACCC or any court or tribunal

Report card

  • 3012 of the 28,826 resolved disputes in 2010-11 (out of 36,095 received) required an FOS decision. Those remaining were worked out between the customer and provider
  • 1170 decisions were in favour of customers, 1529 favoured the FSP (in 313 cases the FOS approved an FSP's offer to customers)

Report card

  • 177,047 of the 2010-11 complaints were resolved by mutual consent between the provider and customer after the TIO was contacted
  • 17,863 required the TIO to conciliate a resolution
  • 2772 were considered for a binding decision or direction by the TIO
  • 39,928 enquiries required the TIO to direct the customer to contact the telco in the first instance or the issue was outside the TIO's jurisdiction

Dispute deadlines

  • For issues that fall under the National Credit Code, customers have two years from the end of the credit contract or the end of any internal dispute resolution process with the provider to complain to the FOS
  • For other issues, consumers have six years from when they became aware of the issue, or two years from the end of any internal dispute resolution process with the provider

Dispute deadlines

  • Customers have one year from the time they become aware of the issue to make a complaint, though the timeframe may be extended to two years in some cases
  • The TIO will allow 10 working days for the telco to respond to the dispute before it becomes formally involved


  • As a first step toward resolution, the FOS makes a recommendation that is binding if both parties agree to it within 30 days
  • If the FSP doesn't agree but the customer does, the FOS can make a determination that is binding. If the customer doesn’t agree, they can take the matter to court


  • There are four complaint levels: at level three the TIO can make binding decisions for up to $1200
  • For level four complaints made since July 2012, the TIO has the power to make binding decisions up to $50,000 and recommendations up to $100,000
  • For level four complaints made before July 2012, the limits are $30,000 for binding decisions and $85,000 for recommendations
Your say - Choice voice

Make a Comment

Members – Sign in on the top right to contribute to comments