Food additives you should avoid

Which ones pose a health risk?
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  • Updated:2 May 2008

01 .Food additives

plates of food

In brief

  • We look at the latest research into additives that health questions have been raised about - and give CHOICE’s verdict on which ones you’d do best to avoid.
  • The less highly processed food you eat, the fewer additives you’ll eat too. And if you replace it with fresh food you’ll be on your way to a healthier diet.

food with additives shown

Please note: this information was current as of May 2008 but is still a useful guide today.

Over 300 food additives are approved for use in Australia

Reader feedback to CHOICE shows that this use of additives in food is a major concern for consumers. Individuals and consumer advocacy groups have issued warnings about certain food additives, saying they’re unsafe and should be avoided.

In contrast, the food manufacturing industry and food regulator say there are good reasons to use additives — to prevent food poisoning or extend a food’s storage life, for example.

The bottom line is that additives and processed food go together — you rarely get one without the other. The more highly processed foods we eat, the more additives we eat too. So the easiest way to avoid them is to eat mainly fresh and only lightly processed foods (such as canned tomatoes and frozen vegetables).

You can’t easily avoid eating additives altogether: even packaged bread often has several. And a small number of additives in their diet isn’t a problem for most people. The safety evidence for food additives is reviewed by Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) before they’re approved for use — see How additives are regulated below. But some people still argue that some approved food additives lead to health problems.

Controversial additives

The additives in question are from the following key categories:

  • Colours (code numbers in the 100 range) add or restore colour to foods.
  • Preservatives (200 range) help protect against food deterioration caused by micro-organisms.
  • Antioxidants (300 range) slow or prevent the oxidative deterioration of foods, such as when fats and oils go rancid.
  • Artificial sweeteners (including intense sweeteners in the 900 range, and bulk sweeteners such as sorbitol, 420) impart a sweet taste for fewer kilojoules than sugar.
  • Flavour enhancers (mainly in the 600 range) improve the flavour and/or aroma of food.

Other key additives

  • Emulsifiers (mostly in the 400 range) help prevent oil and water mixtures (in mayonnaise, for example) from separating.
  • Stabilisers (mostly in the 400 range) maintain the uniform dispersal of substances in a food.
  • Thickeners (including vegetable gums, which have code numbers mostly in the 400 range, and modified starches, with code numbers in the 1000 range) increase the viscosity of food to a desired consistency.

How additives are regulated

The use of food additives in Australia is governed by the Food Standards Code and regulated by FSANZ. When applying to use a new additive, a manufacturer must provide evidence to FSANZ of its safety, as well as the technological reason for its use. FSANZ reviews the safety evidence before an additive is approved for use and reviews new research as it becomes available, but doesn’t undertake safety testing of its own.

In addition, an exposure assessment estimates the likely amount that would be consumed if the food additive was permitted for use. This amount is compared to the acceptable daily intake (ADI) recommended by scientific experts, which is the amount you can consume every day without damaging your health. FSANZ then recommends a maximum level of the food additive permitted in particular foods, based on technological need and providing it’s within safe limits.


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Colours and hyperactivity

  • Additives used to colour foodThe concern over artificial colours was fuelled recently by a UK government-funded study which concluded that a mixture of colourings and the preservative sodium benzoate (211) could affect children’s behaviour.
  • The colours studied were tartrazine (102), quinoline yellow (104), sunset yellow FCF (110), carmoisine (122), ponceau 4R (124) and allura red AC (129).
  • The Food Standards Agency, the UK’s food regulator, recently advised that it’s recommending to UK ministers that industry takes voluntary action to remove these colours by 2009 and is pressing for action at EU level.

Other health concerns associated with colours

  • In the 1980s, the concern centred on tartrazine, an artificial colour that can cause mild allergic-type reactions; sunset yellow FCF can have a similar effect. Some animal studies have indicated sunset yellow can cause tumours, but the results aren’t consistent with other studies on rats and mice.
  • Two long-term feeding studies demonstrated that erythrosine (127) increases the incidence of thyroid tumours in rats, but a review of these and other available data by JECFA, an international scientific expert committee administered jointly by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization (WHO), concluded the colour is safe. Even so, its use in Australia is restricted to glacé cherries.
  • Tests have linked allura red AC (129) with cancer in mice but evidence of harm isn’t consistent or substantial. Claims that brilliant blue FCF (133) is carcinogenic are largely unsubstantiated.
  • Natural additives aren’t necessarily safer than artificial ones. The natural colouring annatto (160b), for example — typically found in margarine, Cheshire cheese, smoked fish and cakes — can cause allergic-type reactions in some people.

CHOICE verdict

Often overused and generally unnecessary, colours aren’t used in processed foods to do anything functional, but purely for looks. In other words, they don’t contribute anything useful to the food — they’re there for the marketing.

And given that they’re most often found in foods like cordials, lollies, cakes and soft drinks, which we’re recommended to have only as an occasional treat anyway, it’s easy enough to avoid colour additives by only eating these foods rarely, if at all.

In light of the UK food regulator’s decision to push for industry action to remove certain colours by 2009, we’d like to see FSANZ review the situation in Australia.

In the meantime, if your child shows signs of hyperactivity, cutting out foods that contain these colours from their diet could help. However, if you think you or your child has an intolerance or allergy to any food or food additive, seek advice from your medical practitioner or dietitian — just cutting out certain foods may not be the answer.

Soft drinks

Additives for preserving foodIn drinks, the combination of sodium benzoate or potassium benzoate (212) and ascorbic acid (vitamin C, both naturally occurring and the additive 300) can result in the formation of benzene, a known carcinogen. Heat or light during transport or storage can boost the amount of benzene formed.

FSANZ tested 68 flavoured drinks, including flavoured mineral waters, cordial, fruit juice and fruit drinks, and found 38 of the samples contained trace levels of benzene. While the majority had benzene levels below WHO guidelines for drinking water (10 ppb — parts per billion), a number contained levels of 1 ppb and above — up to 40 ppb. 1 ppb is the reference level for benzene in Australia’s more stringent drinking water guidelines.

Additionally, the most recent national diet survey found that young children who have lots of drinks that contain a form of benzoate (non-cola soft drinks, orange juice and cordial, for example) could be exceeding the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for benzoates.

Processed meats

The food preservatives sodium nitrite (250) and sodium nitrate (251) — typically found in processed meats — are both listed as "probably carcinogenic to humans" by WHO’s International Agency for Research on Cancer, because they can be converted to cancer-causing nitrosamines in the stomach. Nitrosamines can increase the risk of gastric cancer, although this risk is small. In processed foods, however, sodium nitrite and nitrate prevent the growth of bacteria that cause botulism poisoning, which can be deadly.


Calcium propionate (282) prevents mould growth on bread and is most heavily used in humid, tropical areas. It’s been linked to migraines and behavioural and learning problems, but reports are largely anecdotal.

Wine and dried fruit

Preservatives that contain sulphur (220-228), including sulphur dioxide (220), which is used in wine and dried fruit, can trigger asthma attacks. The most recent national diet survey found that young children who eat lots of foods that contain sulphites, such as dried apricots, sausages and cordial, could be exceeding the ADI for sulphites.

CHOICE verdict

Additional exposure to benzene in food and drink products may be small when compared with breathing air that contains benzene from traffic pollution or tobacco smoke, but it’s unnecessary. So it makes sense to avoid drinks that contain benzoates and ascorbic acid.

The benefit of adding nitrites and nitrates to food far outweighs the risk they present. Even so, the WHO advises us to "moderate consumption" of preserved meat (including sausages, salami, bacon and ham).

Sulphur dioxide should be avoided by people who have asthma.


Additives for preventing foods from going rancidThis antioxidant — butylated hydroxyanisole (320) — is typically found in margarine and spreads, salad dressings, walnuts and pecans, and instant mashed potato.

It’s listed as "possibly carcinogenic to humans" by WHO’s International Agency for Research on Cancer, and some studies have demonstrated that it causes cancer in rats, mice and hamsters.

But these cancers are controversial because they occur in the forestomach, an organ that humans don’t have.

CHOICE verdict

While it’s considered safe at the low level of use permitted, BHA can be replaced in foods by safer chemicals (such as vitamin E), safer processes or simply left out. Check labels if you want to avoid it.

05.Artificial sweeteners


Intense sweetener additivesArtificial sweeteners can be hundreds of times sweeter than sugar.

These 'intense sweeteners' are typically used in diet and low-sugar foods and drinks. Reports link many of them to cancer.

Artificial sweeteners and cancer

In the 1970s, several studies of rats fed very large amounts of saccharin (954) found its use was associated with a higher incidence of bladder cancer. It was banned in Canada and until 1996 products containing saccharin in the US had to be labelled with a warning. But research in humans largely failed to turn up that risk, and in 2000 the US Government’s National Toxicology Program delisted saccharin as a possible carcinogen.

Research in 2005 from the European Ramazzini Foundation (updated in 2007) found feeding rats aspartame (951) at simulated doses around levels considered safe for humans increased the rats’ risk of leukaemia, lymphoma and breast cancer.

Aspartame has also been linked to headaches, allergies and changes in behaviour. But a review of more than 500 studies, including the Ramazzini research, found the claims failed to stand up to rigorous scientific examination, and there was no credible evidence that aspartame is carcinogenic. While many scientists are concerned about the Ramazzini Foundation results, FSANZ and the US food regulatory authority told us they see no reason to alter their position that aspartame is safe.

Another intense sweetener, cyclamate (952), was banned in Canada, the UK and the US over 30 years ago because animal studies indicated links to cancer, but this ban was lifted in the UK in 1996 following further studies. However, another UK survey found some children could be consuming up to twice the ADI for cyclamate. Cyclamate is approved for use in Australia.

CHOICE verdict

There’s certainly a more substantial risk to your health from being overweight than there is from eating artificially sweetened products.

These have often been recommended to aid in weight loss, but a recent study challenged this recommendation by suggesting that people who choose diet drinks containing artificial sweeteners tend to overcompensate and consume more calories than those who don’t.

The jury is still out on the absolute safety of artificial sweeteners, so it makes sense to limit your and your children’s intake of artificially sweetened foods and drinks. Losing weight without the help of artificial sweeteners would be the win/win situation.

Those who should definitely avoid aspartame are people with the rare disorder phenylketonuria, or PKU, who must limit their intake of phenylalanine, an amino acid in aspartame.

06.Flavour enhancers


List showing flavour enhancersFlavour enhancers such as glutamates (621-625) are found in many foods, including packet soups, flavoured noodles, sauces and savoury snacks.

People sensitive to monosodium glutamate (MSG, 621) may have short-term reactions such as headaches, flushing and numbness when they eat foods that contain large amounts of MSG, and some asthmatics may also be susceptible.

CHOICE verdict

For most people MSG and other glutamates are harmless.

If you’re sensitive to MSG, check labels for it.

07.Unlabelled additives


You can avoid specific additives in packaged foods by looking at the ingredients list.

Additives must be identified by their function, then by their name (for example, preservative: sulphur dioxide), or by their code number (for example, preservative 220).

But the fact that either the name or code number is listed means it can be hard to compare which additives are in different products. And there are some exceptions:


Whether they be natural, nature-identical or artificial, they don’t have code numbers and may be labelled simply as 'flavouring' or 'flavour'. According to FSANZ, the vast number of flavouring substances permitted in food means it wouldn’t be realistic to require the names to be listed individually.

5% loophole

If an additive is present in an ingredient and that ingredient makes up less than 5% of the complete food product — and the additive isn’t considered to perform a technological function in the final food — it doesn’t have to be listed.

Processing aids

These aren’t required to be listed, even though traces may be present in the food. Enzymes are an example — they have multiple uses in food production, including pumping up bread loaf volume, assisting with the removal of meat protein from bones and breaking down fruit to release more juice.

Ice structuring protein (ISP), a genetically modified fish protein used in ice cream to control the size and growth of ice crystals, is another.

CHOICE verdict

We want one clear labelling system for additives so it’s easier to avoid them and to compare what’s in different foods.

Food labelling should also be extended to include all additives, including processing aids, even if they’re present in very small amounts.