When it comes to the hype around beating bugs and germs, CHOICE discovers that antibacterial products don't hold up to much scrutiny.
If you believe the advertising, every home should be bristling with an arsenal of antibacterial sprays, gels, wipes and washes. Consumers are being told they need to eliminate germs from their homes to protect themselves and their families from sickness. Antibacterial products, we’re told, are the answer.
In this article we take a look at:
The battle of the bugs How these products kill both bad and good bacteria.
Vive la resistance How the overuse of antibacterial products could lead to antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
Hand sanitisers How these commonly used quick-cleaners don't protect you from everything.
The soap story How do antibacterials stack up against soap and water, and what sorts of ingredients are they made with?
A survey in the US found 75% of all liquid hand soaps and almost 30% of all bar soaps contained antibacterial agents – and our survey of Australian supermarkets confirmed they are still prevalent in handwashing products.
Antibacterials such as triclosan are now being added to pillows, mattresses, food storage containers and household fittings.
For more information on Children's health, see Health, and for more information on Cleaning, see Household.
Some bacteria keep us healthy by keeping harmful bacteria in check. When we bombard them indiscriminately with antibacterials, we disrupt the balance between good and bad. Worse, we may end up giving the bad bugs the upper hand.
Antibacterial agents don’t care which bacteria they kill, and that can have serious consequences. “The mechanism for disturbing good versus bad bacteria has to do with selection,” says Dr Stuart Levy, Director of the Center for Adaptation Genetics and Drug Resistance at Tufts University School of Medicine in the US. “The [antibacterial] products inhibit growth of susceptible and harmless strains of bacteria while not affecting resistant strains that may be infectious.”
It’s this selective process that has scientists worried, since studies under laboratory conditions have demonstrated that it’s possible to use antibacterials to create antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Along with the overuse of antibiotics, the extensive use of handwashing products and cleaners containing biocides could contribute to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains and ultimately reduce the efficacy of prescription antibiotics.
If antibacterials are included in consumer products at sub-lethal concentrations, for instance, they create the perfect environment for the evolution of resistant strains. While evidence that using antibacterials causes antibiotic resistance has only been borne out in the lab, some scientists such as Levy believe it’s fair to assume that the antibacterial cleaners we use at home are a significant contributor to the development of superbugs - antibiotic-resistance bacteria.
“Antibacterials should be limited to use in healthcare settings, where they are used under optimal conditions to protect against infection,” he says, adding that antibacterial use in the home may make them less effective in healthcare environments, where they are needed most.
Alcohol hand sanitisers are a popular way of cleaning while out and about, but if used incorrectly, they may be giving you a false sense of cleanliness.
Hand Hygiene Australia supports the use of alcohol-based hand rubs as an effective alternative to soap and water for healthcare settings where preventing the spread of infection is critical. But the type and level of dirt that an individual comes into contact with is different to what a healthcare professional encounters, and this can have an impact on how effective hand sanitisers are.
- They won’t be appropriate if your hands are visibly soiled, and water will reduce the effectiveness of a hand rub, so they may not be the best choice if you are handling food or if your hands are wet.
- Many consumer hand sanitisers contain either ethanol or isopropyl alcohol.
- Some products do not state the alcohol content, which must be between 60% and 80% to be effective.
- Most of these products claim to kill 99.9% of germs, but the accuracy of this claim is highly dependent on the ingredients and how the product is used.
“People should read product information carefully – the devil is always in the detail,” says Brett Mitchell from Infection Control Australia, adding that “contact time is important”.
Alcohol sanitisers do not protect you from everything. Clostridium difficile, for example, is responsible for many instances of diarrhoea and its spores are not affected by alcohol-based rubs, so prevention requires soap, water and scrubbing.
Hand sanitisers should only be used as an optional followup to hand washing. But they’re better than nothing if you don’t have access to soap and water.